Eddington is more agnostic about the material world than Huxley ever was about the spiritual world.
-- G. K. Chesterton, The Well and the Shallows
12. The Age of Science.
Omitted from this bloggery
“The twenty-first century will be religious, or not at all.” – André Malraux
13. The Secular Age.The Middle Ages had invented the Secular State by stripping kings and emperors of their sacred roles and setting up the Church as an independent entity, with her own incomes, her own law codes and courts, her own governance. “[T]he existence and prestige of the Church,” wrote A.D. Lindsay in The Modern Democratic State, “prevented society from being totalitarian, prevented the omnicompetent state, and preserved liberty in the only way that liberty can be preserved, by maintaining in society an organization which could stand up against the state.” [AL] But during the Modern Ages, as the State began to assert control over theatrical companies, medical societies, universities, and other formerly independent corporations, it also asserted control over the Church – by sponsoring a heretic (Saxony), by nationalizing the Church within State borders (England), or by re-claiming the power to invest bishops and to block or censor papal bulls (France, Spain). The result was a series of State-run “Established Churches.” Cuius regio, eius religio!
The Established Church was a triumph of secularism, not of religion. Divine Right monarchs appeared during the Age of Reason, not the Age of Faith. As the Modern Ages progressed – and moderns always progress – the West became steadily more secular in outlook and religion was steadily more brought to heel.